Welcome back to the second installment of our Book Club
Part 2: Working with Lean Six Sigma
Continuing our read of the book: Lean Six Sigma for Dummies by John Morgan and Martin-Brenig Jones, we are now continuing onto Part 2 of the book which consists of Chapters 3 to 5.
Chapter 3 – Identify Customers
This chapter focuses on what steps we take to identify who our customers are. We can use the SIPOC Model which identifies customers and their requirements.
SIPOC: Suppliers / Inputs / Process / Outputs / Customers
A SIPOC Model can be built by:
1) Listing all the different customers involved
2) Listing all the outputs sent to the customers
3) Listing all the steps in the process
4) Listing all the inputs you receive from your suppliers
5) Identifying the source of your inputs
The book does a great job walking through, with excellent diagrams how to build our SIPOC model so we can easily identify and target our input and outputs.
Chapter 4 – Understanding Customer’s Needs
In the previous chapter, we have identified who our customers are, however now to we need to take it one step further. This chapter investigates several methods on determining finding our customer requirements.
One such method is the Kano Model. The Kano Model has 3 main categories:
1) Basic Requirements: Unspoken Customer Requirements. Also called dissatisfiers.
2) Satisfiers: The more of these requirements that are met, higher the customer satisfaction.
3) Delighters: These are extra additions that increase satisfaction on top of everything else.
Obtaining the Voice of the Customer (VOC)
The Voice of the Customer is important, since when carrying a project out the key priority should be providing value to the customer. One key tip is to obtain their Critical to Quality (CTQ)s. We must investigate to understand what they truly need, and not jump to conclusions to what we think their solutions are.
CTQs should be measurable and typically have an upper and lower limit.
CTQs Trees can be made via an affinity diagram to sort VOCs into themes.
Some methods to find CTQ’s and their requirements can be:
– Taking an outside-in view
– Separating and segmenting your customers
– Prioritizing your customers
– Interviewing / surveying your customers
– Observing potential requirements
Be aware of the huge possibility for bias to occur whether it is intentional or not. This chapter explores several methods on how we can flesh out and understand customer needs, and how to differentiate that from what we think are their needs. Different methods are listed in easy to digest tables, and several key tips and warnings are appropriately placed to ensure we are aware of the potential issues in this process.
Chapter 5 – Determining the Chain of Events
This chapter focuses on how to draw two types of process maps: deployment flowchart and value stream map.
A spaghetti diagram provides a picture of what’s happening in the process in terms of movement. This tracks movement of items going through the process. You can minimize movements by analyzing this and seeing why parts are moving in a certain fashion. It can be insightful to determine why, and where movement occurs.
This chapter notes that while Process Mapping can use a lot of symbols, they give the tip that we generally want to use as few as possible.
With deployment flowcharts we can add interface highlights such as understandings of what’s going on in-process. We can then add units such as cycle time, so we can identify bottlenecks and dead time.
A value stream map can be an addition or an alternative to the deployment flowchart. A VSM follows a product’s path from order to delivery but can also include the layout in office/factory to highlight impact of transport time. Some steps to creating one are:
1) Identify the process
2) Do the analysis with a team
3) Draw a high-level process map of material/product flow in the whole value stream.
4) Identify key performance indices you are looking for.
5) Collect the data you need for each step in the process
6) Identify average cycle time for each item.
Several examples on how to create both deployment flowcharts and value stream maps are noted this chapter to better understand how to create these processes.
? Where do you find inefficiencies in your company?
? Do you find that you jump to solutions to what your customers want, rather than taking the time to investigate what they truly need or want?
? Are you currently engaged in any these processes in your company?
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